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Dedicated to the 120 anniversary of Georgi Nadjakov.


Bulgarian Teachers and Scholars around the Liberation War

Svetoslav Markov
Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

       The biographies of the generation of Bulgarian teachers who lived and worked in the period before and after the Bulgarian Uprising of 1876 and the Russo-Turkish Liberation War (1877 – 1878) are very instructive. These biographies throw much light on the development of the education and science during the Bulgarian Revival and the establishment of the new Bulgarian state after five centuries of Ottoman occupation [1], [3]. Amazing are the efforts of the Bulgarian teachers in introducing European models, strategies, programs and structures in education [4-5]. Reviewing the activities of six Bulgarian teachers we attempt to describe and analyze the difficulties in the transition from Oriental to West-European culture in the Bulgarian society at that time. We are focusing on Bulgarian teachers and scholars in natural sciences (physics and mathematics) and languages who contributed substantially for the establishing of West-European educational programs and related textbooks and materials [2]. The names of the six teachers are: Ioakim Gruev, Ivan Gyuzelev, Todor Ikonomov, Georgi Ya. Kirkov, Nestor Marcoff and Todor N. Shishkov.

Key Words: history of education, Bulgarian teachers in physics and mathematics


  1. Н. Генчев и др., Българска възрожденска интелигенция, изд. П. Берон, София (1988)

  2. M. K. Lovdjieva, Bulgarian Education around the Liberation War, Biomath Communications, to appear

  3. Lin Wenshuang, The rise of Bulgarian nationalism and Russia's influence upon it, Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Paper 1548 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.18297/etd/1548

  4. G. Kamisheva, Bulgarian Mathematical Culture in XIX century, History and Pedagogy of Mathematics Newsletter (61) 16-20 (2006)

  5. G. Kamisheva, Bulgarian physical and mathematical culture in 19 century. – Proc. Sixth International Conference of the Balkan Physical Union (BPU6), Istanbul, 2006, AIP CP No 899 (2007) 521-522


History of Physics Museum
"Georgi Nadjakov" Institute of Solid State Physics
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
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Created: 24 May 2016
Updated: 2 January 2017